Oxidative stress is a term for the damage to biomolecules, tissues, organs and the whole body through oxidative processes from reactive molecules called free radicals and other reactive oxygen species.
Our body counteracts these oxidative processes through the use of antioxidants.
The study was to determine whether the oxidative injury markers of protein and DNA damage could be affected by the product. Twenty four (14 males and 10 females) subjects aged between 55-75 years completed the study. The group was given a twice daily dose of 240 mg of Enzogenol® and 120 mg vitamin C for 12 weeks and blood samples were collected at the start of the study before supplementation, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Plasma samples were analysed for protein carbonyl concentrations as a measure of protein oxidation by an ELISA method. Isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analysed for DNA damage using the alkaline comet assay.
Protein carbonyl concentration reductions were highly significant after 6 and 12 weeks of supplementation. DNA damage reduction, as measured by the comet assay, was not significant after 6 weeks but highly significant after 12 weeks of supplementation.
The subject of experiment was forty-four chronic smokers without established cardiovascular disease were assigned randomly to receive either 480 mg Enzogenol and 60 mg vitamin C, or 60 mg vitamin C alone daily for 12 weeks. Endothelial function in the brachial artery was assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD).
FMD improved in both treatment groups (p < 0.001), with no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.84). In the group receiving Enzogenol and vitamin C, protein carbonyl levels were significantly reduced compared to the group taking vitamin C alone (p = 0.03). Enzogenol and vitamin C resulted in a significant reduction in fibrinogen levels in heavy smokers compared with vitamin C alone (p < 0.009). These findings demonstrated that co-supplementation with Enzogenol and vitamin C in smokers conferred no additional beneficial effect on macrovascular endothelial function over and above that seen in the vitamin C alone group. However, Enzogenol did demonstrate additional favourable effects on protein oxidative damage and fibrinogen levels.